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Cardiology is a division of medicine which deals with the study of disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system. This field holds medical diagnosis and treatment of cognetial heart defects. Cardiologists are medical doctors who specialize in heart and blood vessel disease. They help in preventing the disease as well as diagnose and treat those who previously have them. Cardiology is circulated into numerous fields such as pediatric cardiology, adult cardiology, interventional procedures, electrophysiology and echocardiography etc.
Cardiooncology is the intersection of heart disorders in patients who have been treated for cancer. Cardiologists can consider patients for eventual danger of developing heart conditions if patients take assured types of cancer drugs, or resulting radiation treatment to the chest. They also help oncologists safeguard their patients during treatment by closely watching the heart and identifying heart trouble early in treatment. Cardio-oncology is an emerging field that takes a team-based approach with cardiologists, oncologists, and hematologists working together for the prevention, early detection and management of cardiovascular disease in cancer patients throughout all stages of cancer therapy and in the survivorship period. The field is rapidly increasing due to the recognition that many agents that are effective cancer therapies leave survivors at heightened risk for cardiovascular disease. Since the original call to arms concerning the need for committed systems to care for these patients in 2010, cardio-oncology clinics have developed around the world, and the demand for cardio-oncology clinics is only going to continue to grow as cancer survivorship increases. There are an predictable 15.5 million cancer survivors living in the United States and 2 million cancer survivors living in the United Kingdom and these numbers are expected to grow.
Pediatric Cardiology is a division of medicine deals with heart associated problems in new born, infants, children and adolescents. A pediatric cardiologist is a pediatrician who has acknowledged extensive training in diagnosing and treating children's cardiac problems. Currently, evaluating and treating the disease condition may begin with the fetus since heart problems can now be noticed before birth. Hence this division is actively involved in therapeutic conclusion and treatment of preventing both congenital and acquired heart disease in children. Finally, the division is committed to educating the next generation of physicians and offers advanced training in pediatric cardiology.
Interventional cardiology is a part of cardiology that manages the catheter-based treatment of basic heart illnesses. Interventional cardiology is a non-careful alternative which uses a catheter – a little, adaptable cylinder – to fix harmed or debilitated vessels, limited veins, or other influenced portions of the heart structure. An enormous number of strategies can be performed on the heart by catheterization. The fundamental focal points of utilizing the interventional cardiology or radiology approach are the shirking of the scars and agony, and long post-employable recuperation. Moreover, interventional cardiology technique of essential angioplasty is currently the best quality level of care for an intense myocardial dead tissue.
Cardiac surgery, also called heart surgery, involves surgical operations made on the heart under to correct life-threatening conditions. The surgery can be either open-heart surgery or minimally invasive surgery subject on the condition to be corrected. The purpose of cardiac surgery is to progress the quality of life of the patient and to extend the patient's lifespan. Cardiac surgery includes substantial risk and is only done when the benefits outweigh the risk. Risks are highest for infants under one year of age and adults over age 60. Risk increases with age and when the individual has other health problems such as diabetes, chronic kidney failure, chronic lung disease, pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure, electrolyte imbalances, alcoholism, and prior history of heart attack or stroke. Even though few circumstances categorically rule out a cardiac process, the physician must judge the risks and benefits on an individual basis.
Molecular cardiology is a newly developed technological method in the field of cardiology that aims to administer molecular biological techniques for the mechanistic investigation, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular & heart diseases. This innovation has changed our theoretical thinking of cardiovascular development, disease etiology, and pathophysiology. Although molecular cardiology is still at a very early stage, it has opened a assuring pathway for understanding and controlling cardiovascular disease. A great interest of the laboratory is the description of novel circulating factors that regulate cardiac biology, including aging and hypertrophy.
Neurocardiology features the present subject about heart afferent components that is answerable for cardiovascular reflexes just as the efferent engine neurons. A lot of research has been proceeding to outline the neuroanatomical and utilitarian association of the autonomic sensory system which controls cardiovascular work. A far reaching component of the neurons that are innervating the heart in ordinary, sick state. A brief review of neuron manages the heart and results in some major clinical conditions, for example, arrhythmias and cardiovascular breakdown.
Neurocardiac Axis Link
Imbalance of Autonomic Neural Inputs
Changes in Neural Oscillations
Cardiac nursing is a field nursing that works with patients who practice the ill effects of different states of the cardiovascular system. A cardiac care nurse or cardiac nurse is an expertise who cares definitely for patients with heart issues. While the obligations and duties of a nurse with this title may change from situation to situation, they will treat patients who have experienced or endure different sorts of heart problems under the direction of cardiologists. They perform various tasks such as performing stress tests, care for a patient after an operation, complete health assessments or closely monitor the patient’s heart rate.
Heart disease describes a range of conditions that interrupt the heart. Diseases under the heart disease includes blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects), among others. Heart disease term is frequently used interchangeably with the cardiovascular disease. It generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart failure, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart circumstances, such as those that affect your heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease. Many forms of heart disease can be prohibited or treated with healthy lifestyle choices.
Cardiovascular pharmacology deals with the medicine of cardiac diseases. The Cardiac Drugs are used to treat conditions of the heart or the circulatory or vascular system. Many classes of cardiovascular agents are existing to treat the numerous cardiovascular conditions. In this sub topic we have Sodium, potassium, calcium network blockers, ACE-inhibitors and cardiac biomarkers. There are six associations and societies and the main association for Cardiac Therapeutic Agents in USA. 50 universities are working on Cardiac Therapeutic Agents. Three new drugs were announced in 2015. There are many types of cardiovascular drugs in the market that hold Cardiac glycosides, anti-coagulants, anti-arrhythmic agents, anti-anginal agents and anti-hypertensive agents.
Advances in cardiology contain the current research and new innovative methods that are emerging in the field of cardiology and its related fields. Advanced research in this field allows early detection of CHD in order to halt or reverse the progress of the disease. It focuses on the research related to devices, development of Nuclear Cardiology methods for the detection of heart disease, drug development and evaluation of treatments used in heart disease, identification of novel biological markers to predict the presence of heart disease etc.
Cardiovascular Pharmacology is the study of drug action which exerts either a biochemical or physiological effect on the tissue, cell, organ or organism. The interactions affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.Cardiovascular group is currently working on the relation between salt intake & obesity relating to blood pressure control mechanism they use state of art molecular, integrative approaches & cellular to study vascular functions & neural control of blood pressure. The main aim of this research is to identify new drugs that can be used to treat high blood pressure & its consequences which may leads to stroke.
- Antiplatelet Agents and Dual Antiplatelet Therapy
- ACE Inhibitors
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers
- Angiotensin-Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitors
- Beta Blockers
- Calcium Channel Blockers
- Cholesterol-lowering medications
- Digitalis Preparations